Linux—解压缩命令总结(tar/zip)(示例代码)

栏目: 技巧 · 发布时间: 2021-03-04

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1 tar

1.2 tar介绍

??tar命令是linux系统中对文件和目录解压缩命令。tar命令可以用于对后缀名为.tar,tar.gz等常用文件。

1.3 tar参数

系统中通过tar --help查看:

 Main operation mode:

  -A, --catenate, --concatenate   append tar files to an archive
  -c, --create               create a new archive
  -d, --diff, --compare      find differences between archive and file system
      --delete               delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)
  -r, --append               append files to the end of an archive
  -t, --list                 list the contents of an archive
      --test-label           test the archive volume label and exit
  -u, --update               only append files newer than copy in archive
  -x, --extract, --get       extract files from an archive

 Operation modifiers:

      --check-device         check device numbers when creating incremental
                             archives (default)
  -g, --listed-incremental=FILE   handle new GNU-format incremental backup
  -G, --incremental          handle old GNU-format incremental backup
      --ignore-failed-read   do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files
      --level=NUMBER         dump level for created listed-incremental archive
  -n, --seek                 archive is seekable
      --no-check-device      do not check device numbers when creating
                             incremental archives
      --no-seek              archive is not seekable
      --occurrence[=NUMBER]  process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file
                             in the archive; this option is valid only in
                             conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete,
                             --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of
                             files is given either on the command line or via
                             the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1
      --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR]
                             set version of the sparse format to use (implies
                             --sparse)
  -S, --sparse               handle sparse files efficiently

 Overwrite control:

  -k, --keep-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             treat them as errors
      --keep-newer-files     don't replace existing files that are newer than
                             their archive copies
      --no-overwrite-dir     preserve metadata of existing directories
      --overwrite            overwrite existing files when extracting
      --overwrite-dir        overwrite metadata of existing directories when
                             extracting (default)
      --recursive-unlink     empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory
      --remove-files         remove files after adding them to the archive
      --skip-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             silently skip over them
  -U, --unlink-first         remove each file prior to extracting over it
  -W, --verify               attempt to verify the archive after writing it

 Select output stream:

      --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children
      --no-ignore-command-error   treat non-zero exit codes of children as
                             error
  -O, --to-stdout            extract files to standard output
      --to-command=COMMAND   pipe extracted files to another program

 Handling of file attributes:

      --atime-preserve[=METHOD]   preserve access times on dumped files, either
                             by restoring the times after reading
                             (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not setting the
                             times in the first place (METHOD='system')
      --delay-directory-restore   delay setting modification times and
                             permissions of extracted directories until the end
                             of extraction
      --group=NAME           force NAME as group for added files
      --mode=CHANGES         force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files
      --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE   set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE
  -m, --touch                don't extract file modified time
      --no-delay-directory-restore
                             cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore
                             option
      --no-same-owner        extract files as yourself (default for ordinary
                             users)
      --no-same-permissions  apply the user's umask when extracting permissions
                             from the archive (default for ordinary users)
      --numeric-owner        always use numbers for user/group names
      --owner=NAME           force NAME as owner for added files
  -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
                             extract information about file permissions
                             (default for superuser)
      --preserve             same as both -p and -s
      --same-owner           try extracting files with the same ownership as
                             exists in the archive (default for superuser)
  -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
                             sort names to extract to match archive

 Handling of extended file attributes:

      --acls                 Enable the POSIX ACLs support
      --no-acls              Disable the POSIX ACLs support
      --no-selinux           Disable the SELinux context support
      --no-xattrs            Disable extended attributes support
      --selinux              Enable the SELinux context support
      --xattrs               Enable extended attributes support
      --xattrs-exclude=MASK  specify the exclude pattern for xattr keys
      --xattrs-include=MASK  specify the include pattern for xattr keys

 Device selection and switching:

  -f, --file=ARCHIVE         use archive file or device ARCHIVE
      --force-local          archive file is local even if it has a colon
  -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME
                             run script at end of each tape (implies -M)
  -L, --tape-length=NUMBER   change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes
  -M, --multi-volume         create/list/extract multi-volume archive
      --rmt-command=COMMAND  use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt
      --rsh-command=COMMAND  use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
      --volno-file=FILE      use/update the volume number in FILE

 Device blocking:

  -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS   BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record
  -B, --read-full-records    reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)
  -i, --ignore-zeros         ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)
      --record-size=NUMBER   NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

 Archive format selection:

  -H, --format=FORMAT        create archive of the given format

 FORMAT is one of the following:

    gnu                      GNU tar 1.13.x format
    oldgnu                   GNU format as per tar <= 1.12
    pax                      POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format
    posix                    same as pax
    ustar                    POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format
    v7                       old V7 tar format

      --old-archive, --portability
                             same as --format=v7
      --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]...
                             control pax keywords
      --posix                same as --format=posix
  -V, --label=TEXT           create archive with volume name TEXT; at
                             list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern
                             for volume name

 Compression options:

  -a, --auto-compress        use archive suffix to determine the compression
                             program
  -I, --use-compress-program=PROG
                             filter through PROG (must accept -d)
  -j, --bzip2                filter the archive through bzip2
  -J, --xz                   filter the archive through xz
      --lzip                 filter the archive through lzip
      --lzma                 filter the archive through lzma
      --lzop
      --no-auto-compress     do not use archive suffix to determine the
                             compression program
  -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip   filter the archive through gzip
  -Z, --compress, --uncompress   filter the archive through compress

 Local file selection:

      --add-file=FILE        add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name
                             starts with a dash)
      --backup[=CONTROL]     backup before removal, choose version CONTROL
  -C, --directory=DIR        change to directory DIR
      --exclude=PATTERN      exclude files, given as a PATTERN
      --exclude-backups      exclude backup and lock files
      --exclude-caches       exclude contents of directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself
      --exclude-caches-all   exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-tag=FILE     exclude contents of directories containing FILE,
                             except for FILE itself
      --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE
      --exclude-tag-under=FILE   exclude everything under directories
                             containing FILE
      --exclude-vcs          exclude version control system directories
  -h, --dereference          follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they
                             point to
      --hard-dereference     follow hard links; archive and dump the files they
                             refer to
  -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME
                             begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive
      --newer-mtime=DATE     compare date and time when data changed only
      --no-null              disable the effect of the previous --null option
      --no-recursion         avoid descending automatically in directories
      --no-unquote           do not unquote filenames read with -T
      --null                 -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C
  -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE
                             only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE
      --one-file-system      stay in local file system when creating archive
  -P, --absolute-names       don't strip leading `/'s from file names
      --recursion            recurse into directories (default)
      --suffix=STRING        backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~'
                             unless overridden by environment variable
                             SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX)
  -T, --files-from=FILE      get names to extract or create from FILE
      --unquote              unquote filenames read with -T (default)
  -X, --exclude-from=FILE    exclude patterns listed in FILE

 File name transformations:

      --strip-components=NUMBER   strip NUMBER leading components from file
                             names on extraction
      --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
                             use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file
                             names

 File name matching options (affect both exclude and include patterns):

      --anchored             patterns match file name start
      --ignore-case          ignore case
      --no-anchored          patterns match after any `/' (default for
                             exclusion)
      --no-ignore-case       case sensitive matching (default)
      --no-wildcards         verbatim string matching
      --no-wildcards-match-slash   wildcards do not match `/'
      --wildcards            use wildcards (default)
      --wildcards-match-slash   wildcards match `/' (default for exclusion)

 Informative output:

      --checkpoint[=NUMBER]  display progress messages every NUMBERth record
                             (default 10)
      --checkpoint-action=ACTION   execute ACTION on each checkpoint
      --full-time            print file time to its full resolution
      --index-file=FILE      send verbose output to FILE
  -l, --check-links          print a message if not all links are dumped
      --no-quote-chars=STRING   disable quoting for characters from STRING
      --quote-chars=STRING   additionally quote characters from STRING
      --quoting-style=STYLE  set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE
                             values
  -R, --block-number         show block number within archive with each message
                            
      --show-defaults        show tar defaults
      --show-omitted-dirs    when listing or extracting, list each directory
                             that does not match search criteria
      --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
                             show file or archive names after transformation
      --totals[=SIGNAL]      print total bytes after processing the archive;
                             with an argument - print total bytes when this
                             SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed signals are: SIGHUP,
                             SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the names
                             without SIG prefix are also accepted
      --utc                  print file modification times in UTC
  -v, --verbose              verbosely list files processed
      --warning=KEYWORD      warning control
  -w, --interactive, --confirmation
                             ask for confirmation for every action

 Compatibility options:

  -o                         when creating, same as --old-archive; when
                             extracting, same as --no-same-owner

 Other options:

  -?, --help                 give this help list
      --restrict             disable use of some potentially harmful options
      --usage                give a short usage message
      --version              print program version

挑选常用的参数说明:

  • -c:创建新的压缩文件
  • -x :从压缩的文件中解压文件
  • -v :显示解压缩操作的过程
  • -f :指定压缩文件
  • -z :支持gzip解压文件
  • -C :切换到指定目录
  • -r:添加文件至已压缩文件
  • -u: 添加改变了和现有的文件到已经存在的压缩文件
  • -t :显示压缩文件的内容目录结构等
  • -j :支持bzip2解压文件
  • -k :解压时不覆盖当前目录下原有文件
  • --delete:删除压缩包内的文件

1.4 tar压缩

1.4.1 压缩tar包
使用-c参数
多个文件压缩:
tar -cvf t.tar t1.txt t2.txt
目录压缩:
tar -cvf dir.tar dir1/
匹配压缩:
tar -cvf t.tar *.txt

1.4.2 压缩tar.gz包
使用-z参数
压缩为gizp
tar -zcvf t.tar.gz t1.txt t2.txt

1.4.3 压缩gar.bz2包
使用-j参数
压缩为bzip2
tar -jcvf t.tar.bz2 t1.txt t2.txt

1.4.4 查看压缩包内容
使用-t参数
tar -tvf t.tar

1.4.5 向压缩包添加/更新文件
使用-r参数
tar -rf t.tar newfile

1.4.6 删除压缩包内的文件
如t.tar内包含了t1.txt和其他文件,需删除t1.txt文件,使用--delete参数,需要注意删除文件的目录是全路径。
tar -f t.tar --delete /t/t1.txt

1.4.7 压缩时删除源文件
慎用,如果删除源文件较多时,可以使用这个命令。
tar -zcvf t.tar.gz t1.txt --remove-files

1.5 tar解压

1.5.1 直接解压到当前目录
使用-x参数
tar -xvf t.tar

1.5.2 解压到指定目录
使用-C参数
tar -xvf t.tar -C dir

1.5.3 解压包中的某些文件
tar -xvf t.tar t/t1.txt -C dir1
如上,将t.tar压缩包中的t1.txt解压至dir1目录。

1.5.4 解压不覆盖原有文件
使用-k参数
tar -xvkf t.tar

1.5.5 去除目录结构
使用--strip-components,如去掉一层目录
tar -xvf t.tar.gz --strip-components=1

2 zip/unzip

2.1 zip/unzip介绍

??zip和unzip命令主要用于处理zip包,但是我们也可以用unzip去解压jar包。

2.2 zip/unzip参数

zip参数

zip [-options] [-b path] [-t mmddyyyy] [-n suffixes] [zipfile list] [-xi list]
  The default action is to add or replace zipfile entries from list, which
  can include the special name - to compress standard input.
  If zipfile and list are omitted, zip compresses stdin to stdout.
  -f   freshen: only changed files  -u   update: only changed or new files
  -d   delete entries in zipfile    -m   move into zipfile (delete OS files)
  -r   recurse into directories     -j   junk (don't record) directory names
  -0   store only                   -l   convert LF to CR LF (-ll CR LF to LF)
  -1   compress faster              -9   compress better
  -q   quiet operation              -v   verbose operation/print version info
  -c   add one-line comments        -z   add zipfile comment
  -@   read names from stdin        -o   make zipfile as old as latest entry
  -x   exclude the following names  -i   include only the following names
  -F   fix zipfile (-FF try harder) -D   do not add directory entries
  -A   adjust self-extracting exe   -J   junk zipfile prefix (unzipsfx)
  -T   test zipfile integrity       -X   eXclude eXtra file attributes
  -y   store symbolic links as the link instead of the referenced file
  -e   encrypt                      -n   don't compress these suffixes
  -h2  show more help

常用:

  • -f 与"-u"参数类似,更新/创建文件;
  • -d 删除压缩文件内指定的文件;
  • -r 递归处理指定目录及子目录;
  • -j 只压缩该目录下的所有文件,不带目录名。
  • -u 更换较新的文件到压缩文件内。
  • -v 显示指令执行过程或显示版本信息。
  • -y 直接保存符号连接,而非该连接所指向的文件,本参数仅在UNIX之类的系统下有效。

unzip参数

Usage: unzip [-Z] [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d exdir]
  Default action is to extract files in list, except those in xlist, to exdir;
  file[.zip] may be a wildcard.  -Z => ZipInfo mode ("unzip -Z" for usage).

  -p  extract files to pipe, no messages     -l  list files (short format)
  -f  freshen existing files, create none    -t  test compressed archive data
  -u  update files, create if necessary      -z  display archive comment only
  -v  list verbosely/show version info       -T  timestamp archive to latest
  -x  exclude files that follow (in xlist)   -d  extract files into exdir
modifiers:
  -n  never overwrite existing files         -q  quiet mode (-qq => quieter)
  -o  overwrite files WITHOUT prompting      -a  auto-convert any text files
  -j  junk paths (do not make directories)   -aa treat ALL files as text
  -U  use escapes for all non-ASCII Unicode  -UU ignore any Unicode fields
  -C  match filenames case-insensitively     -L  make (some) names lowercase
  -X  restore UID/GID info                   -V  retain VMS version numbers
  -K  keep setuid/setgid/tacky permissions   -M  pipe through "more" pager
  -O CHARSET  specify a character encoding for DOS, Windows and OS/2 archives
  -I CHARSET  specify a character encoding for UNIX and other archives

See "unzip -hh" or unzip.txt for more help.  Examples:
  unzip data1 -x joe   => extract all files except joe from zipfile data1.zip
  unzip -p foo | more  => send contents of foo.zip via pipe into program more
  unzip -fo foo ReadMe => quietly replace existing ReadMe if archive file newer

常用参数说明:

  • -l 显示压缩包内文件
  • -j 只保存文件名称及其内容,而不存放任何目录名称。
  • -o 以压缩文件内拥有最新更改时间的文件为准,将压缩文件的更改时间设成和该
  • -v 显示指令执行过程或显示版本信息。
  • -d 指定解压目录,目录不存在会创建

2.1 压缩 zip

2.1.1 压缩目录
使用-r参数
zip -r t.zip dir/

2.1.2 压缩目录下的文件,不带目录名
使用-j参数
zip -rj t.zip dir/

2.1.3 删除压缩包内的指定文件
使用-d参数,如删除t.zip中的t1.txt文件:
zip -d t.zip t1.txt

2.2 解压 unzip

2.2.1 查看解压包的文件信息
使用-l参数
unzip -l t.zip

2.2.2 查看解压包内的文件详细信息
使用-v参数
unzip -v t.zip

2.2.3 解压压缩包到当前目录
使用-o参数
unzip -o t.zip

2.2.4 解压压缩包到指定目录
使用-d参数
unzip -o t.zip -d test/

2.2.5 解压压缩包内的指定文件
unzip -o t.zip "t2.txt" -d t2_dir

2.2.6 解压jar包
unzip -o service-1.jar -d service_dir

示例

[test@linux01 t1]$ touch t2.txt
[test@linux01 t1]$ touch  t3.txt
[test@linux01 t1]$ zip -r t.zip *.txt
  adding: t2.txt (stored 0%)
  adding: t3.txt (stored 0%)
[test@linux01 t1]$ ll
total 4
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest   0 Mar 19 12:15 t2.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest   0 Mar 19 12:15 t3.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest 302 Mar 19 12:15 t.zip
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ unzip -l t.zip 
Archive:  t.zip
  Length      Date    Time    Name
---------  ---------- -----   ----
        0  03-19-2020 12:15   t2.txt
        0  03-19-2020 12:15   t3.txt
---------                     -------
        0                     2 files
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ unzip -v t.zip 
Archive:  t.zip
 Length   Method    Size  Cmpr    Date    Time   CRC-32   Name
--------  ------  ------- ---- ---------- ----- --------  ----
       0  Stored        0   0% 03-19-2020 12:15 00000000  t2.txt
       0  Stored        0   0% 03-19-2020 12:15 00000000  t3.txt
--------          -------  ---                            -------
       0                0   0%                            2 files
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ unzip -o t.zip -d test
Archive:  t.zip
 extracting: test/t2.txt             
 extracting: test/t3.txt             
[test@linux01 t1]$ ll
total 8
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest    0 Mar 19 12:15 t2.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest    0 Mar 19 12:15 t3.txt
drwxrwxr-x 2 dsjtest dsjtest 4096 Mar 19 12:16 test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest  302 Mar 19 12:15 t.zip
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ 
[test@linux01 t1]$ unzip -o t.zip "t2.txt" -d t2_dir
Archive:  t.zip
 extracting: t2_dir/t2.txt           
[test@linux01 t1]$ ll
total 12
drwxrwxr-x 2 dsjtest dsjtest 4096 Mar 19 12:19 t2_dir
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest    0 Mar 19 12:15 t2.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest    0 Mar 19 12:15 t3.txt
drwxrwxr-x 2 dsjtest dsjtest 4096 Mar 19 12:16 test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 dsjtest dsjtest  302 Mar 19 12:15 t.zip
[test@linux01 t1]$  

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,版权归原作者或者来源机构所有,感谢作者,如果未能解决你的问题,请参考以下文章。

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